Migraine Headache: Everything That You Need To Know!

The headache of various intensities, often accompanied by nausea and light and sound discomfort can be ascertained to be due to migraine. Migraine is sometimes accompanied by warning signs. Hormone fluctuations, food and drink, stress and exercise are all causes. In a specific location, migraine headaches can cause throbbing that can differ in intensity. Light and sound discomfort and nausea are frequent signs as well. Medications that avoid and alleviate pain can help treat migraine headaches.

A migraine headache can cause several symptoms and is a neurological disorder. It is also marked by severe, weakening headaches. Nausea, vomiting, trouble talking, numbness or tingling and light and sound sensitivity may be included as it’s symptoms. In families, migraines also occur and affect every generation. Diagnosing migraine headaches is based on health reports, signs identified and other factors. Migraine headaches are the most common types of aura less (formerly widely referred to as migraines), and aura free (previously known as classic migraines). 

For certain cases, before or with headache, an alert sign called an aura exists. An aura may involve eye disturbances, e.g., light or blind spots, and other disturbances, e.g. tingling on one side of the face or in the arm or leg, and speech difficulties. Medicines can help to avoid and reduce migraines. The right medications can help, along with self-help solutions and improvements in lifestyles. Migraines can start in childhood or adulthood. Women tend to have migraines more often than men. One of the most common risk factors for migraine syndrome is family history.

People who have had a history of migraine headache describe the pain as a sensation similar to:

  • pulsating
  • throbbing
  • perforating
  • pounding
  • debilitating

Causes of migraine

There has been no clear cause for migraine discovered by researchers. However several contributing factors have been found that can cause the disease. This involves changes in brain chemicals, such as a drop in brain chemistry serotonin levels. Several factors that may trigger migraine are:


  • Exposure to bright light
  • Exposure to extremes weather conditions
  • Dehydration
  • Skipping meals
  • Travelling
  • Hormonal changes, especially in women
  • Loud sounds
  • Intense physical activity
  • Excess stress
  • Changes in sleep patterns
  • Excessive use of alcohol
  • Changes in barometric pressure
  • Use of medicines like oral contraceptives or nitroglycerin
  • Certain foods
  • Smoking
  • Unusual smells

You might be asked to keep a headache log if you experience migraine. Type out which foods you ate and which drugs you used to take before the migraine started will help identify the causes. Discover how your migraines might otherwise cause or intensify.

Symptoms of migraine


Four stages of migraines that often begin in infancy, adolescence or early adulthood: the prodrome, auras, attacks and the postdrome are available. Not everyone with migraines is going all the way through.


One may be able to experience certain symptoms 1 or 2 days before a migraine, including:

  • Constipation
  • Frequent yawn 
  • Stiffness in the neck
  • Food cravings
  • Mood swings due to depression and euphoria
  • Increase in thirst and the urge to urinate 


Aura can occur before or during migraines for some people. Auras are the nervous system’s reversible signs. Typically they’re visual, but other disruptions may involve them. Each symptom typically starts step by step, rises over several minutes and lasts 20 to 60 minutes. Symptoms in aura migraine are:

  • One may be able to experience certain visual structures, spots, flashes of light.
  • A tingling sensation like a needle being pierced in the arm or leg.
  • A part of the side of the body feel numb
  • Difficulty in speaking
  • Hearing sounds
  • Uncontrollable jerks or other movements


Usually, if the migraine is untreated, it lasts up to 4 to 72 hours. The frequency of migraines varies between individuals. Rarely, or several times a month, migraines may occur. You may experience the following symptoms in a migraine attack:

  • Severe pain on one or both sides of the head
  • Rhythmic pain, similar to throb
  • Sensitivity towards light sound and touch
  • Nausea and vomiting


You may feel exhausted, confused, and washed away until one day after a migraine attack. Some people say they are satisfied. The sudden movement of the head could momentarily bring the pain back.

How to treat migraine

Migraine often goes undiagnosed and undetected. Keep notes of the attacks and how you treated them if you frequently have signs and symptoms of migraine. Speak about your headaches, make an appointment with your doctor. And if you have a history of headaches, see the trend or headaches unexpectedly vary. If the symptoms seem to increase contact your doctor immediately as these symptoms may indicate immediate medical attention, as follows:

  • An extreme and unbearable headache
  • Migraine headache along with symptoms of fever, weakness, numbness, may affect your mental state of mind, stiffness in the neck, blurred or double vision, trouble in speaking.
  • If you have had a head injury, it may worsen the migraine headache.
  • A chronic migraine headache can worsen after coughing, stress or due to a sudden movement.

Albeit not well understood, the causes of migraine seem to play a major role in Biology and the environment. 

Changes in the trigeminal nerve, a major pain channel, and it is communicating with the brainstem may be involved. This may lead to brain chemicals imbalances — like serotonin that helps to control pain in your nervous system. The role of serotonin in migraines is studied by researchers. Other nerve transmitters, including calcitonin gene-related peptide, play a role in migraine pain (CGRP).

Migraine diagnosis

Doctors identify migraines by hearing the signs, taking an extended family and medical history, and undertaking a physical examination that excludes other possible causes. Imaging scans should exclude other factors such as CT scans or MRI scans. The underlying causes include:

  • tumours
  • abnormal brain structures
  • stroke

Treatment for Migraine

Migraines cannot be healed, but your doctor will assist you in their treatment and treat the symptoms less frequently. Therapy can also contribute to the reduction of migraines. However, the treatment may differ in people due to the factors that it depends on, like:

  • Age of the person
  • How frequently you have migraine
  • The type of migraine
  • How much is the migraine headache able to overpower your daily routine?
  • If you are also suffering from other medical conditions

Keeping these points in mind, the doctor will suggest a remedy accordingly.